Instructional Scaffolding in the Pre-Brief

  • students walked into the sim lab like wide-eyed deer in the headlights
    • their performance pretty much mirrored that analogy
    • did they learn anything just by being scared?
  • pre-briefs are defined as short sessions before the simulation
    • set expectations and roles (take this thing seriously)
    • familiarize students with equipment and debrief procedures
    • but teaching doesn’t usually happen here (or in the debrief for that matter)
  • simulation is often incorporated into the flipped classroom
    • watch a video (or read something) at home and then come to class to do simulation
  • we inserted a pre-brief using instructional scaffolding between the home module and the simulation session
    • students watch videos at home & complete a 1-page fill-in-the-blank worksheet
    • before simulation they learn their roles, expectations but also go through some mini-cases using that worksheet
    • then evaluated their performance on a checklist
    • their performance significantly improved on the checklist and their impressions of the sessions were better

Pulseless Arrest With Blanks


  • checklist
    • immediately (<10 seconds) started CPR upon determining patient is pulseless
    • initiated defibrillation upon observing a shockable rhythm
    • switched compressors every 2 minutes with brief (<10 seconds) pause in compressions
    • gave proper doses of vasopressors and anti-arrhythmic at the appropriate time
  • reflection
    • I feel confident in performing a resuscitation of a patient in pulseless arrest (strongly disagree…)
  • quiz
    • fill in the worksheet without a crutch
    • given scenarios, pick the next step

Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses

Systematic reviews sit atop the evidence-based medicine pyramid as the strongest form of evidence we have. This is so because it incorporates more data than individual studies. To avoid bias in making reviews, the authors need to follow a systematic process. In this video we look at this process the authors would follow and you should note when reading such reviews.

Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses